June 10 – Some important events on this day.
1190 👉🏼 Third Crusade: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa drowns while crossing the Saleph River (modern Turkey) leading an army to Jerusalem
1619 👉🏼 Thirty Years’ War: Battle of Záblatí, a turning point in the Bohemian Revolt
1692 👉🏼 The first victim of the Salem witch trials, Bridget Bishop, is hanged for witchcraft in the colony of Massachusetts.
Perhaps the most notorious case of mass hysteria in colonial America, the Salem witch trials saw around 200 people accused of witchcraft, with 19 found guilty and executed. Another man was crushed to death for refusing to plead, while five others died in jail.
The story began in February 1692 when a group of young girls claimed to have been possessed by the devil and accused other women of being witches. Hysteria spread through colonial Massachusetts and a special court was convened to hear trials of those accused.
By September public opinion turned against the trials and they eventually closed early in 1693. The cases became notorious and were interpreted by later generations as a warning sign against the dangers of religious fanaticism, isolation and lapses in due process. In 1711 the convictions of twenty-two people were reversed by the courts and their families were given monetary compensation.
1720 👉🏼 Mrs Clements of England markets first paste-style mustard
1786 👉🏼 A landslide dam on the Dadu River caused by earthquake ten days earlier collapses, killing 100,000 in the Sichuan province of China 🇨🇳
1845 👉🏼 Andrew Jackson’s African Grey parrot “Poll” is removed from his funeral for swearing at The Hermitage, Tennessee. Funeral attendee William Menefee Norment recorded: “Before the sermon and while the crowd was gathering, a wicked parrot that was a household pet got excited and commenced swearing so loud and long as to disturb the people and had to be carried from the house”
1857 👉🏼 Britain passes an act putting Canada on the decimal currency system
1865 👉🏼 Richard Wagner’s opera “Tristan und Isolde” premieres in Munich, Germany
1898 👉🏼 US Marines land in Cuba during Spanish-American War
1916 👉🏼 Great Arab Revolt begins against ruling Ottoman turks.
1935 👉🏼 Alcoholics Anonymous founded.
In Akron, Ohio, Bill Wilson and Dr. Robert Smith, two recovering alcoholics, found on this day a 12-step rehabilitation program that eventually helps countless people cope with alcoholism.
Based on psychological techniques that have long been used in suppressing dangerous personality traits, members of the strictly anonymous organization control their disease through guided group discussion and confession. The organization functions through local groups that have no formal rules besides anonymity, no officers, and no dues. Anyone who wishes to stop drinking problem qualifies for membership. Today, there are more than 80,000 local groups, with an estimated membership of almost two million people.
1944 👉🏼 Nazi forces carry out a massacre of 642 civilians in the French village Oradour-sur-Glane.
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1946 👉🏼 Italian Republic established 🇮🇹
1947 👉🏼 Saab produces its first automobile 🚗
1963 👉🏼 US Equal Pay Act signed into law by President John F. Kennedy
1977 👉🏼 Apple Computer ships its first Apple II computers 💻
2003 👉🏼 The Spirit Rover is launched, beginning NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover mission.
The launch of the Spirit rover on this day marked the beginning of NASA’s mission, which continues to this day with the Opportunity rover.
Spirit took some of the clearest images of the red planet, including this photo, at the time the highest quality image of another world. It also undertook numerous scientific tests, and traveled extensively near and around its landing area.
In early 2009 the rover became stuck in a sand trap and could not be freed by its NASA controllers. It ceased communication almost a year later on March 22, 2010, and NASA officially ended the Spirit program on May 24, 2011. Opportunity rover, which landed in January 2004, is still active.