September 29 – Some important events on this day.
522 BC 👉🏼 Darius I of Persia kills Magian usurper Gaumâta, securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire
480 BC 👉🏼 Battle of Salamis: The Greek fleet under Themistocles defeats the Persian fleet under Xerxes I
61 BC 👉🏼 Pompey the Great celebrates his third triumph for victories over the pirates and the end of the Mithridatic Wars on his 45th birthday.
1567 👉🏼 War of Religion breaks out in France – Huguenots try to kidnap King Charles IX
1829 👉🏼 The first units of the London Metropolitan Police appear on the streets of the British capital
1916 👉🏼 American oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller becomes the world’s first billionaire
1972 👉🏼 Robert McNamara, former US Secretary of Defense, is almost thrown overboard on a ferry by an artist wanting to confront him on his role in escalating US involvement in the Vietnam war (no charges pressed)
1863 👉🏼 Opera “The Pearl Fishers” (Les Pêcheurs de Perles) by Bizet is first produced at the Théâtre Lyrique in Paris
1911 👉🏼 Italy declares war on Turkey, starting the Italo-Turkish War.
In the years leading up to World War I, Italy became aggressive in pursuing claims to areas in Africa that were once part of the Roman Empire, which it saw itself as a successor to. Libya was the only other territory in Africa not claimed by another European power so it was the only possession Italy had a chance of dominating.
A rise in Italian colonial fervor coincided with the Ottoman Empire’s steady decline in the late 19th and early 20th century. Italy sent an ultimatum to the Ottomans on this day, and the Ottomans attempted to negotiate, but Italy declared war the following day.
The conflict lasted for a year and led to an Italian victory and control over what became Italian Libya. The conflict was minor in itself but was a significant precursor to World War I, weakening the Ottomans further, surging nationalism in the Balkans and causing the Balkan League to declare war on the Turks before the war had ended.
The war also had its share of technological advancements – including the airplane: on October 23, 1911, the first aerial reconnaissance mission occurred, and on November 1, the first aerial bomb was dropped, both by an Italian aircraft. The Turks did not have anti-air defenses and became the first to shoot down an aircraft with rifle fire alone.
1927 👉🏼 Telephone service begins between US & Mexico
1979 👉🏼 Pope John Paul II becomes 1st pope to visit Ireland
2008 👉🏼 Dow Jones Industrial Average falls 777.68 points, its largest single-day point loss, following the bankruptcies of Lehman Brothers and Washington Mutual
2019 👉🏼 In Austrian general election conservative People’s Party led by Sebastian Kurz the leading party with 38% of the vote