#TodayInHistory – September 303 min read
September 30 – Some important events on this day.
1520 👉🏼 Suleiman the Magnificent succeeds his father Selam I as Ottoman Sultan (rules till 1566)
1659 👉🏼 Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherlands forbids tennis playing during religious services (1st mention of tennis in US)
1791 👉🏼 Mozart’s opera “Magic Flute” premieres in Vienna
1846 👉🏼 Anesthetic ether used for 1st time by American dentist Dr William Morton who extracts a tooth
1862 👉🏼 Prussia Minister President Otto von Bismarck’s delivers his “Blood & Iron” speech
1878 👉🏼 1st Portuguese immigrants arrive in Hawaii
1878 👉🏼 Great Flood hits New Zealand’s South Island
1888 👉🏼 “Jack the Ripper” murders 2 more women, Liz Stride & Kate Eddowes, in Whitechapel, London.
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1938 👉🏼 Treaty of Munich signed by Hitler, Mussolini, Daladier and Chamberlain, forces Czechoslovakia to give territory to Germany.
1946 👉🏼 22 Nazi leaders, including Joachim von Ribbentrop and Hermann Goering, are found guilty of war crimes and sentenced to death or prison at the Nuremberg war trials.
At the end of World War II in Europe, the victorious Allied powers created the first international court to try war criminals from Nazi Germany. Headquartered in the German city of Nuremberg, the first and most famous trials of the major war criminals were held between November 20, 1945 and October 1, 1946, with verdicts announced on September 30 and October 1.
In the end, a large number of senior Nazi leaders were sentenced to death, including Hermann Goering (who killed himself with cyanide the night before his sentence was to be carried out), Karl Dönitz, Martin Bormann (who was missing but sentenced to death in abstentia), Alfred Jodl, Joachim von Ribbentrop and various others. Some leaders, like Rudolf Hess and Albert Speer, were given prison terms in Spandau Prison. The death sentences were carried out on October 16, 1946.
Described as “the greatest trial in history” by one of the presiding judges, Nuremberg was a leap in international law, and would set a precedent for trying war crimes in an international court. The effect of Nuremberg can be seen in the modern-day International Criminal Court and with the prosecution of criminals for actions during wars in Yugoslavia and beyond.
1954 👉🏼 USS Nautilus—world’s first nuclear submarine—is commissioned
1960 👉🏼 “The Flintstones” the first animated sitcom created by Hanna-Barbera premieres on ABC in the US
1968 👉🏼 1st Boeing 747 rolls out
1990 👉🏼 The Dalai Lama unveils the Canadian Tribute to Human Rights in Canada’s capital city of Ottawa.