June Solstice: first day of Summer

In 2021, the June solstice occurs on Sunday, June 20, marking the start of summer. At least, in the Northern Hemisphere. But the solstice happens at the same instant for all of us, everywhere on Earth. Only our clocks are different. But really is the summer solstice the first day of summer? Yes and no. Basically, it depends on whether we’re speaking about the meteorological or astronomical start of the season. Most meteorologists divide the year into four seasons based on the months and the temperature cycle, which allows them…

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Centro Ceremonioso de Pamashto: a mysterious circle of stones in Peru

We are above the village of Pamashto, a short ride from the historic town of Lamas near the city of Tarapoto, Peru, a high-jungle city that was an unmarked town until the completion of the Carretera Marginal de la Selva (Jungle Highway) in the late-1960s. The small archaeological site know as Centro Ceremonioso de Pamashto (Ceremonial Center of Pamashto) sits on a grassy hilltop, and it likely dates back to around the time of the Inca Empire, if not before, but who exactly built it and, above all, why, remains…

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