#TodayInHistory – February 132 min read
February 13 – Some important events on this day
1258 👉🏼 Baghdad, then a city of 1 million, falls to the Mongols as the abbasid Caliphate is destroyed, tens of thousands slaughtered, ending the Islamic Golden Age.
Baghdad, now the second-largest city in the Arab world, was founded in the 8th century by Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur and eventually became the capital of the Abbasid caliphate. Baghdad in this era was a hub of learning and commerce, particularly during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age.
From shortly after its founding until the 930s, it is likely that Baghdad was one of the largest cities in the world. This period of expansion and of Baghdad as a hub of Islamic learning was ended when the Mongol Empire conquered the city in 1258, and destroyed the Abbasid caliphate. This also ended the Islamic Golden Age.
1601 👉🏼 1st British East India Company voyage departs from London, lead by John Lancaster
1689 👉🏼 British Parliament adopts the Bill of Rights which establishes the rights of parliament and places limits on the crown
1866 👉🏼 Jesse James holds up his first bank, stealing $15,000 from the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri
1917 👉🏼 Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari is arrested in Paris on suspicion that she is a German spy
1942 👉🏼 Hitler’s Operation Sealion, the invasion of England, is cancelled.
1945 👉🏼 Allied planes begin bombing Dresden, Germany; a firestorm results and over 22,000 die.
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1945 👉🏼 USSR captures Budapest, after a 49-day battle with Nazi Germany in which 159,000 die
1982 👉🏼 Pink Floyd’s album “Dark Side of the Moon” marks 402 weeks in the album charts
2020 👉🏼 January 2020 was the hottest January in recorded history according to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
2020 👉🏼 Scientists overturn current thought about how planets form – not by violent collision but gentle clumping, through study of Arrokoth in Kepler belt, published in “Science”